A sport community consultation that began in late 1998 and completed in 2000 called for a unified voice for Sport in Calgary to assist in creating solutions for sport issues. A dedicated group of volunteers known as the Calgary Sport Council Planning Committee developed a structure for this new organization and incorporated it as the Calgary Sport Council Society on February 28, 2001.

In the spring of 2002, an inaugural Board of Directors was formed. The formalization of the Sport Calgary was the first step toward bringing sport organizations together in an effort to discuss issues and opportunities to enhance the delivery and development of amateur sport in Calgary.

Recognizing the implications of Calgary's rapid growth on the sport community, in 2003 Sport Calgary initiated discussions to create a Civic Sport Policy with the support of Mayor Dave Bronconnier. Council's endorsement followed in earlier 2004 and the Civic Sport Policy Steering Committee was created with Sport Calgary playing a lead role. Council approved the Civic Sport Policy 2005 and recognized Sport Calgary as the independent body to represent sport and the Calgary Sport Tourism Authority to develop and implement a plan for sport tourism.

In 2007, the Sport Calgary, in partnership with the City of Calgary, launched the first-ever Sport Needs and Preferences Study. This Study provided the base information for the development of the 10 Year Strategic Plan for Sport Facility Development and Enhancement.

The 10 Year Strategic Plan for Sport Facility Development and Enhancement was approved by Calgary City Council in June of 2008. Later in November the Implementation Plan for this Strategic Plan was approved and is currently underway.

In June 2009, All Sport One Day (a free day of sport discovery for kids aged 6-12) debuted, and became one of Sport Calgary's most popular annual signature events. The event focuses on involving children in new sports, thereby increasing their physical literacy in a key developmental range. Also at this time, the Artificial Turf Field Development Plan was accepted by City Council, which explored the feasibility of developing artificial turf sport fields at strategically located athletic parks throughout the city. In June of the following year, the Sport & Recreation Fund Development Feasibility Study was completed.

March 2011 marked the beginning of the transition of operating under the name of the Calgary Sport Council to what is known as Sport Calgary today.

The Sport Facility Supply & Demand Study was launched in July of 2013 and released to the public and media in August of 2014. The findings of the study assist Sport Calgary in planning initiatives to assess future sport needs in Calgary and set priorities for facilities that could be built, renovated, or refurbished over the next 10 years.

In September of the same year, the event formerly known as the Mayor's Sport Breakfast, now known the Celebration of Sport, celebrated its 10th year of existence. The event is a chance to recognize the people and businesses that make Calgary such an incredible sport city. 100% of proceeds from the event go towards supporting amateur sport organizations, as well as programs that encourage sport participation, like All Sport One Day. 

February 2015 brought new changes to the look of the Sport Calgary brand. Aligning itself under the same brand umbrella as Calgary Economic Development, Tourism Calgary and the Telus Convention Centre, Sport Calgary declared that it was "part of the energy" that understands, loves, and aims to constantly improve the great city of Calgary.

Inspired by the continual success of All Sport One Day, Sport Calgary unveiled a new sport discovery day in November of 2015. Catered to adults, All Sport One City happens annually each January, inviting adults of any age or skill type to discover a new sport, or revisit a sport they may have once played.

Sport Calgary has continued to grow into 2018, and added new community events like its annual Celebration of Sport event.